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Brown spots can be caused by a larger number of skin concerns. The vast majority of these spots are not a medical concern, but they can be cosmetically unappealing to some people. The most common cases of brown spots that result in uneven pigmentation are freckles, sun spots or age spots, melasma, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.
Most cases of hyperpigmentation (where one areas is darker than surrounding skin) is triggered by sun exposure. Staying clear of the sun, and using appropriate sunscreens with a high SPF is important for preventing future hyperpigmentation, and is a requirement for successful treatment.
There are several depigmenting treatments that will lighten the brown spots to match the surrounding skin. Generally, they inhibit melanin from being produced in the skin to limit the brown pigment from being created where the treatment is applied. It is essential that during and after treatment, sun protection must be adhered to very strictly in order to maintain the gains that are made by treatment.